What is Human right? Human rights, is a right belong to every member of the human family regardless of sex, race, nationality, socio-economic group, political opinion, sexual orientation or any other status. Human rights are universal. They apply to all people simply on the basis of being human.
Critiques of DNA DatabaseNational DNA databases were initially established to contain the catalog’s identities of violent criminals. However, since then, forensic DNA technology have expanded to include people merely arrested, regardless of whether they've been charged or convicted of a crime. Many people are beginning to realize that the unfettered collection of DNA profiles might compromise basic freedoms and human rights. Using DNA to trace people who are suspected of committing a crime has been a major advance in policing. When DNA profiling is used wisely it can help to convict people who have committed serious crimes or exonerate people who are innocent. However,concerns arise when individuals’ genetic samples, computerized into DNA profiles and such personal data stored indefinitely on a national DNA database. There are concerns that this information could be used in ways to threaten people’s privacy and rights or even blackmail their families. The rules on what data can be collected and stored and how it can be used these rules are differ greatly between different countries and nations. As DNA sequencing technology advances and the cost becomes cheaper,there are plans to set up new databases or expand existing databases in many countries. In some countries, national databases contain only biological data from people who convicted of serious crimes and while other nations expanding them to include most innocent people who have been arrested but not convicted of any offense. These people on database are treated as a ‘risky population’ who may not or commit future offenses. In other countries, like Kuwait, Australia,Saudi Arabia and others, they planed to include the whole population into their national DNA databases. Data-sharing: Involving the transfer of information across international borders which is also on the increase. Anyone who can access forensic DNA profiles might use them to track the individual or their relatives. Access to a DNA sample can reveal more detailed information about a person’s health, currently there are no consistent international safeguards that would protect people’s privacy and rights and prevent DNA thefts. ConclusionThe benefits of DNA databases in solving crimes must be weighed against these downsides. So, the database’s Custodians have the responsibilities for over-sighting the quality of database’s contents and enact public policy for limiting access to its internal contents. In addition, a board of committee together with legislative officials, police members and scientific community required to monitors its development. The usage of database should balance between protecting the civil liberties of the population and while maximize its blow against crime. The retention of DNA profiles and samples taken from crime scenes or individual should be readily justified because the information might be useful if an investigation needs to be re-opened in the future (either to convict a perpetrator, or to exonerate an innocent person). DNA typing is not 100%, sometimes it might purposely tempered so procedures need to be put in place to ensure that matches between individuals’ evidence and the samples being stored in National DNA Database shouldn’t result into obsessiveness of witch-hunting. Some problems can also came due to poor laboratory procedures, failure to corroborating, processing or examining thoroughly the event, fore instance to enable detecting if DNA evidence was intentionally planted at a crime scene. These concerns are exacerbated by wider problems within many criminal justice systems, which may result in racial, religious or political bias in whose DNA and personal information is kept, or taken from. The degree of control an individual’s information should depend on how “sensitive” it is (e.g., its potential to cause the person harm if made accessible).This short briefing on this website is intended to provide readers with the information that they need in order to understand how DNA databases are operate, as well as their pros, cons and possible implications for human rights. NB: The safeguards are needed and the ordinary citizens should have a say in how these safeguards should be developed. Resourceshttps://www.liberty-human-rights.org.uk/human-rights/privacy/dna-retentionhttp://www.bioethics.msu.edu/what-is-bioethicshttp://www.unesco.org/new/en/social-and-human-sciences/themes/bioethics/http://dnapolicyinitiative.org/https://www.theguardian.com/uk/2008/dec/04/law-geneticshttp://www.yourgenome.org/debates/is-it-ethical-to-have-a-national-dna-databasehttp://www.abouthumanrights.co.uk/human-rights-dna-database.html