Phenotype: Phenotype is a biological traits from a special gene that gives an individual's observable physical traits, such as height, eye color, looks and blood type. The primary genetic contribution to the phenotype is called the genotype. Some traits are largely determined by the genotype, while other traits are determined by environmental factors that we called adaptive conditioning.
. Recently,forensic biologyhas expandedafter multiple techniques such asHirisplex,snapshot and other methods added to predict accurately the external characteristics of a human being. This ’s a wonderful break through for forensic science in general. Todays it’s possible for the biological tracefound at sceneofcrimeto producesaphenotype ofan unknownsuspectin identifying how such person look-like in physical appearance and age estimation. The snapshot from Parabon-nano lab plus other major technologies are being integrated farther in developing facial morphology that pin point exact the person’s ancestry origin. Another research was done at Erasmus MC in Rotterdam,Netherlands on the HirisPlex system that produce prediction of haircolor and eye color. Altogether these new inventions will assist police investigations to unmask faceless culprits.
DNA in predicting human appearance:There are many researches like the one conducted by a leading researcher Dr. Manfred Kayser of Erasmus MC University in Rotterdam who also commented that his test hit the highest accuracy of any designed that estimate a phenotypic human trait from simple and half degraded DNA information. “Conventional DNA profiling applied in forensics those years can only identify persons already known to the investigating bodies. In such cases, today human appearance could be estimated from evidence and materials that found at the scene, this will help in finding such unidentified person” said Dr. Kayser. How the police unmasking faceless suspect?Snapshottechnology: Is a new revolutionary DNA analysis for the forensic services that predicts accurately physical appearance and ancestry of an unknown person from just DNA sample,which developed by Parabon nano-lab. The DNA technology is constantly bringing new improvement adding to modern era that marks deep understanding about the primordial code behind human’s architectural design especially the genes involves in the formation of facial morphologythat gives a detailed about our facial phantom (unique portrait) which can dispel the pixel and fix dots in spotting the actual person who might be involved in undisclosed crime acts. Sorely, speaking DNA evidence provides a very interesting applications for the law enforcing agencies when true faces on those faceless perpetrators are constructed from crime scene. Snapshot technology allow law enforcers to know our physical characteristics including skin pigmentation, eye and hair color, face morphology, sex, and genomic ancestry that can establish distant familial relationships between the samples retrieved from the scene. Ellen McRae Greytak, (Ph.D) and Parabon's Director of Bioinformatics, explained that "Snapshot it takes advantage of modern SNP technology, along with so-called 'big data' high-performance computing (HPC) techniques, to translate genetic markers into a number of different phenotype predictions. It can identify distant familial relationships between two DNA samples, such as from second or third cousins, which is significantly more powerful than traditional STR-based analysis. When other DNA analysis such as CODIS (Combined DNA Index System) failed to find a DNA match, their cases often go cold, but Snapshot can generate new leads and help resolve those cases. [ more ]Age Prediction from DNA: Is another wonderful technique that exploits a characteristic of immune cells carried in the T cells of human being. The combination with T-cells can determine human’s age, this research was also conducted by the same team in Netherlands and the result was published in the journal of Current Biology. According to a report from the studies, says T cells play a major key role in recognizing foreign "invaders" such as bacteria, viruses, parasites, or tumour cells. As part of the same process these defensive cells emit signal molecules that recognize what type of invaders are, in the whole process whenever pathogens detected small circular DNA molecules are produced during the immuno-defensive. The number of these circular DNA molecules which known as signal joint TCR excision circles (sjTRECs) declines at a constant rate with age. According to another extract narrative written in Current Biology, where other researchers also confirmed that this biological phenomenon could be used for estimating the age of a human being so accurately and reliably. The discovery of the genes that involved physical traits of a person and facial shape configuration have a resounding applications in forensics and security organizations of which these inventions can benefiting all societies in the world [ more ]
Using genomic data from populations of known phenotypes, Parabon has built statistical models for forensic traits.